Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Bracket Fungi of Berrien County, Michigan: A Preliminary List

Bracket fungi are a diverse group named more for their similar external morphologies (specifically, bracket- or shelf-like growth habits on dead or living tree trunks, and woody textures) than for their close relationship. The so-called bracket fungi (sometimes referred to as shelf fungi) are typically grouped together in field guides for ease of identification by observers in the field. Additional information about bracket fungi can be found here, and images of some representative species can be viewed here.

Because the distribution and relative abundance of fungi has been poorly documented in the literature, the following list was derived by scanning six field guides at my disposal (Barron 1999, Bessette and Sundberg 1987, Lincoff 1987, McKnight and McKnight 1987, Miller and Miller 2006, and Smith and Weber 1996) and making educated guesses as to which species were likely to occur in Berrien County based on range and habitat descriptions. The 82 species listed below represent 51 genera, 21 families, 5 orders, and 1 subclass. Given the current state of knowledge of local fungal diversity, I should again emphasize that this is a list of what is possible rather than a list of what has been confirmed in Berrien County and vicinity, and that I have erred on the side of being inclusive rather than exclusive in the case of questionable species.

Scientific names are those recognized by the Index Fungorum. Higher-order taxonomic categories (i.e., Families, Orders, Subclasses) follow the MushroomExpert; for genera not recognized by the MushroomExpert, taxonomic treatment follows the Index Fungorum.

There are no officially recognized common names for North American fungi. In many cases, however, North American species of Holarctic distribution have been assigned an "official" English name by the British Mycological Society (see Recommended English Names for Fungi in the UK); these names are capitalized and appear immediately following the scientific name. Where available, other common name(s) shown in curly brackets in lower case are those that appear in one or more of the referenced field guides.

Authors of field guides treating each species are shown in straight brackets.

The few species that are Edible or POISONOUS are indicated as such.

Credit: Dryad's Saddle (Polyporus squamosus), showing typical attachment of bracket fungus to tree trunk. This photo by Walter Baxter is used here courtesy of a Creative Commons licensing agreement.
Subclass Agaricomycetes
ORDER AGARICALES

Family Fistulinaceae:
  • Fistulina hepatica, Beefsteak Fungus {beefsteak fungus, beefsteak, beefsteak polypore} [Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller, Smith] - Edible

    Family Schizophyllaceae:
  • Schizophyllum commune, Split Gill {common split gill} [Lincoff, Miller]

    ORDER HYMENOCHAETALES

    Family Hymenochaetaceae:
  • Coltricia cinnamomea {faiy stook, shiny cinnamon polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Coltricia montagnei {green’s polypore, montagne’s polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Coltricia perennis, Tiger’s Eye [Barron, Miller]
  • Inonotus obliquus {clinker polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Inonotus radiatus, Alder Bracket [Barron]
  • Onnia tomentosa (=Inonotus tomentosus) {woolly velvet polypore [Lincoff]
  • Phelinus chrysoloma {golden spreading polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Phellinus gilvus {mustard yellow polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Phellinus igniarius, Willow Bracket {flecked-flesh polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Phellinus rimosus (=rimosa) {craked-cap polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Porodaedalea (=Phellinus) pini [Miller]

    Family Schizoporaceae:
  • Oxyporus populinus, Poplar Bracket {mossy maple polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Schizopora paradoxa, Split Porecrust {split-pore polypore} [Lincoff]

    ORDER POLYPORALES

    Family Albatrellaceae:
  • Albatrellus caeruleoporus {blue albatrellus, blue-pored polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Albatrellus confluens [Barron, Miller]
  • Albatrellus cristatus {crested polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Albatrellus ovinus {sheep polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller, Smith] - Edible

    Family Altheliaceae:
  • Plicaturopsis crispa {crimped gill} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]

    Family Fomitopsidaceae:
  • Daedalea quercina, Oak Mazegill {oak maze-gill, oak polypore, thick-maze oak polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Fomitopsis cajanderi [Barron]
  • Fomitopsis pinicola {redbelt, red-banded polypore, red-belted polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Piptoporus betulinus, Birch Polypore or Razorstrop Fungus {birch polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Postia (=Tyromyces) caesius, Conifer Blueing Bracket {blue cheese polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Postia fragilis [Barron]

    Family Ganodermataceae:
  • Ganoderma applanatum, Artist’s Bracket {artist’s conk, artist’s fungus} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Ganoderma lucidum, Lacquered Bracket {lancquered polypore, ling chih} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Ganoderma tsugae {hemlock varnish shelf, lacquered polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff]

    Family Gloeophyllaceae:
  • Gloeophyllum sepiarium [yellow-red gill polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]

    Family Hapalopilaceae:
  • Bjerkandera adusta, Smoky Bracket {smoky polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Ceriporia (=Poria) spissa {orange poria} [Lincoff]
  • Hapalopilus nidulans, Cinnamon Bracket {tender nesting polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Ischnoerma resinosum {resinous polypore, late fall polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff]

    Family Meripilaceae:
  • Grifola frondosa, Hen of the Woods {hen of the woods, hen-of-the-woods} [Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller, Smith] - Edible
  • Meripilus giganteus, Giant Polypore {black-staining polypore} [Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller] - Edible

    Family Meruliaceae:
  • Gloeoporus (=Caloporus) dichrous {gelatinous-pored polypore} [Lincoff]
  • Merulius tremellosus (=Phlebia tremellosa), Jelly Rot [Barron, Miller]
  • Phlebia incarnata [Barron, Miller]
  • Phlebia radiata, Wrinkled Crust [Barron]

    Family Phanerochaetacdae:
  • Lopharia cinerascens {bristly parchment} [Lincoff]

    Family Podoscyphaceae:
  • Cotylidia diaphana [Barron]

    Famly Polyporaceae:
  • Cerrena unicolor {mossy maze polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Cryptoporus volvatus {veiled polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Daedaleopsis confragosa, Blushing Bracket {currycomb bracket, thin-maze flat polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Fomes fomentarius, Hoof Fungus or Tinder Bracket {tinder polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Globiformes graveolens {sweet knot} [Lincoff]
  • Hexagonia hirta (=Polyporus hirtus) {bitter iodine polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Laetiporus sulphureus, Chicken of the Woods {chicken of the woods, sulphur shelf} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller, Smith] - Edible
  • Lenzites betulina, Birch Mazegill {birch lenzites, birch maze-gill, gilled bracket, multicolor gill polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, McKnight]
  • Phaeolus schweinitzii, Dyer’s Mazegill {die maker’s polypore, dye polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Polyporus alveolaris (=mori) [Barron, Miller] - Edible (when young)
  • Polyporus arcularius (=Favolus alveolaris) {spring polypore, hexagonal-pored polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Polyporus badius {bay-brown polypore, black-footed polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Polyporus brumalis, Winter Polypore {winter polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Polyporus radicatus {rooting polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Polyporus squamosus, Dryad’s Saddle {dryad’s saddle, dryad saddle, scaly polyporus} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Smith]
  • Polyporus umbellatus, Umbrella Polypore {umbrella polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight]
  • Polyporus varius {blackfoot polypore, elegant polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Poronidulus (=Trametes) conchifer {little nest polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Pycnoporus cinnabarinus {cinnabar polypore, cinnabar red polypore, cinnabar-red polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Trametes hirsuta, Hairy Bracket [Barron]
  • Trametes pubescens [Barron]
  • Trametes (=Coriolus) versicolor, Turkeytail {turkey tail, turkey-tail} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Trichaptum abietinum (=abietinus), Purplepore Bracket [Barron, Bessette]
  • Trichaptum biforme (=biformis {violet toothed polypore, purple-toothed polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Tyromyces chioneus {white cheese polypore} [Barron, Lincoff]

    Family Steccherinaceae:
  • Irpex lacteus {milk-white toothed polypore} [Lincoff]

    ORDER RUSSULALES

    Family Bondarzewiaceae:
  • Bondarzewia berkeleyi {berkeley’s polypore} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller]
  • Heterobasidion annosum, Root Rot [conifer-base polypore} [Barron, Bessette, Lincoff, Miller]

    Family Peniophoraceae:
  • Peniophora rufa [Barron]

    Family Stereaceae:
  • Stereum complicatum {crowded parchment} [Lincoff, Miller]
  • Stereum hirsutum, Hairy Curtain Crust {hairy parchment} [Barron, Lincoff]
  • Stereum ostrea {false turkey tail, false turkey-tail, false turkeytail} [Barron, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Stereum (=Haematostereum) sanguinolentum, Bleeding Conifer {bleeding conifer parchment} [Lincoff]
  • Stereum striatum {silky parchment} [Lincoff]
  • Xylobolus frustulatus {ceramic fungus, ceramic parchment} [Barron, Lincoff]

    ORDER THELEPHORALES

    Family Bankeraceae:
  • Boletopsis subsquamosa {kurotake} [Barron, Lincoff, Miller] - Edible

    Family Thelephoraceae:
  • Thelephora caryophyllea {carnation fungus, carnation groundwart} [Barron]
  • Thelephora palmata, Stinking Earthfan [Barron, Miller]
  • Thelephora terrestris, Earthfan {common fiber vase, earth fan, groundwart} [Barron, Lincoff, McKnight, Miller]
  • Sources:

    Barron, George. 1999. Mushrooms of northeast North America: Midwest to New England. Lone Pine Publishing, Auburn, Washington. 336 pp.

    Bessette, Alan, and Walter J. Sunderg. 1987. Mushrooms: a quick reference guide to mushrooms of North America. McMillan Publishing Company, New York, New York. 173 pp.

    Lincoff, Gary H. 1987. The Audubon Society field guide to North American mushrooms. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York. 926 pp.

    McKnight, Kent H., and Vera B. McKnight. 1987. A field guide to mushrooms of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 429 pp.

    Miller, Orson K., and Hope H. Miller. 2006. North American mushrooms: a field guide to edible and inedible fungi. Falcon Guides, Guilford, Connecticut. 583 pp.

    Smith, Alexander H., and Nancy Smith Weber. 1996. The mushroom hunter’s guide. University of Michigan Press and Thunder Bay Press. 316 pp.

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