Thursday, September 23, 2010

Trees of Berrien County, Michigan

Trees constitute a particular growth form (or habit) of vascular plants. Plants USDA defines a tree as follows:
Perrenial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
The trees of Berrien County constitute a subset of the conifers and dicots known from the county.

Of the 131 species listed below, 57 occur only as trees, while 74 can also be shrubs under certain conditions. These 131 species represent 54 genera, 30 families, 16 orders, and 2 classes.

Scientific and common names follow the online USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

Species that have been determined to be of Special Plants in Michigan are denoted as follows: [E} = Endangered, [SC] = Special Concern, [T] = Threatened.

Growth habits are denoted as follows: {s} = shrub, {t} = tree. Species known to have woody stems are denoted with a {W}.

CLASS PINIPSIDA (conifers)
ORDER PINALES (pines et al.):

Family Cupressaceae (cypresses):
  • Juniperus communis, Common Juniper {s/t}
  • Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Redcedar {t}
  • Thuja occidentalis, Arborvitae {t}

    Family Pinaceae (pines):
  • Larix laricina, Tamarack {t}
  • Pinus banksiana, Jack Pine {t}
  • Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine {t}
  • Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock {t}
  • CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicots)
    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Aquifoliaceae (holly family):
  • Ilex (=Nemopanthus) mucronata (=mucronatus), Catberry {s/t}
  • Ilex verticillata, Common Winterberry {s/t}

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Euonymus europaeus (=europaea), European Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus hamiltonianus (=hamiltoniana), Hamilton’s Spindletree [I] {s/t}

    ORDER CORNALES

    Family Cornaceae [including Nyssaceae] (dogwood family):
  • Cornus alternifolia, Alternateleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus rugosa, Roundleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus sericea (=stolonifera), Redosier Dogwood {s/t}
  • Nyssa sylvatica, Blackgum {t}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Sambucus nigra (=canadensis), Black Elderberry [I?] {s/t}
  • Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum dentatum, Southern Arrow-wood {s/t}
  • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum nudum (=cassinoides), Withe-rod {s/t}
  • Viburnum opulus, American Cranberrybush {s/t}
  • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw [SC] {s/t}

    ORDER FABALES

    Family Fabaceae [=Leguminoceae] (pea family):
  • Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud {s/t}
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, Honeylocust {s/t}
  • Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffeetree [SC] {t}
  • Robinia hispida, Bristly Locust {s/t}
  • Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust {t}
  • Robinia viscosa, Clammy Locust {s/t}

    Family Betulaceae (birch family):
  • Alnus incana, Gray Alder {s/t}
  • Betula alleghaniensis, Yellow Birch {t}
  • Betula papyrifera, Paper Birch {t}
  • Betula pendula, European White Birch [I] {t}
  • Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam {s/t}
  • Ostrya virginiana, Hophornbeam {s/t}

    Family Fagaceae (beech family):
  • Castanea dentate, American Chestnut^ [E] {t}
  • Fagus grandifolia, American Beech {t}
  • Quercus alba, White Oak {t}
  • Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak {t}
  • Quercus imbricaria, Shingle Oak {t}
  • Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak {s/t}
  • Quercus muehlenbergii, Chinkapin Oak {t}
  • Quercus palustris, Pin Oak {t}
  • Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak {t}
  • Quercus velutina, Black Oak {t}

    ORDER HAMAMELIDALES

    Family Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family):
  • Hamamelis virginiana, American Witchhazel {s/t}

    Family Platanaceae (plane-tree family):
  • Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore {t}

    ORDER LAURALES

    Family Lauraceae (laurel family):
  • Lindera benzoin, Northern Spicebush {s/t}
  • Sassafras albidum, Sassafras {s/t}

    ORDER MAGNOLIALES

    Family Ammonaceae (custard-apple family):
  • Asimina triloba, Pawpaw {s/t}

    Family Magnoliaceae (magnolia family):
  • Liriodendron tulipifera, Tuliptree {t}

    ORDER MALVALES

    Family Tiliaceae (linden family):
  • Tilia americana, American Basswood {t}

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family):
  • Frangula (=Rhamnus) alnus (=frangula), Glossy Buckthorn [I] {s/t}
  • Rhamnus cathartica, Common Buckthorn [I] {s/t}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Amelanchier arborea, Common Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier interior, Pacific Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier laevis, Allegheny Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier sanguinea, Roundleaf Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Crataegus calpodendron, Pear Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus crus-galli, Cockspur Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus dodgei, Dodge’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus holmesiana, Holmes’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus margarettiae, Margarett’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pedicellata, Scarlet Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pringlei, Pringle’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus punctata, Dotted Hawtorhn {s/t}
  • Malus coronaria, Sweet Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus ioensis, Prairie Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus pumila, Paradise Apple [I] {t}
  • Prunus americana, American Plum {s/t}
  • Prunus avium, Sweet Cherry [I] {t}
  • Prunus domestica, European Plum [I] {t}
  • Prunus mahaleb, Mahaleb Cherry [I] {s/t}
  • Prunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus virginiana, Chokecherry {s/t}
  • Pyrus communis, Common Pear [I] {t}

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush {s/t}

    ORDER SALICALES

    Family Salicaceae (willow family):
  • Populus alba, White Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus balsamifera, Balsam Poplar {t}
  • Populus deltoides, Eastern Cottonwood {t}
  • Populus grandidentata, Bigtooth Aspen {t}
  • Populus heterophylla, Swamp Cottonwood [E] {t}
  • Populus nigra, Lombardy Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus tremuloides, Quacking Aspen {t}
  • Salix alba, White Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix amygdaloides, Peachleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix bebbiana, Bebb Willow {s/t}
  • Salix discolor, Pussy Willow {s/t}
  • Salix eriocephala, Missouri River Willow {s/t}
  • Salix exigua, Narrowleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix fragilis, Crack Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix lucida, Shining Willow {s/t}
  • Salix myricoides, Bayberry Willow {s/t}
  • Salix nigra, Black Willow {t}
  • Salix pentandra, Laurel Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix petiolaris, Meadow Willow {s/t}
  • Salix purpurea, Purpleosier Willow [I] {s/t}
  • Salix sericea, Silky Willow {s/t}
  • Salix serissima, Autumn Willow {s/t}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Aceraceae (maple family):
  • Acer negundo, Boxelder {t}
  • Acer platanoides, Norway Maple [I] {t}
  • Acer nigrum (=saccharum nigrum), Black Maple {t}
  • Acer rubrum, Red Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple {t}

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Rhus pulvinata, Northern Smooth Sumac {t}
  • Rhus copallinum (=copallina), Winged Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac {s/t}
  • Toxicodendron vernix, Poison Sumac {s/t}

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family):
  • Catalpa speciosa, Northern Catalpa {t}

    Family Oleaceae (olive family):
  • Fraxinus americana, White Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus nigra, BlackAsh {t}
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus profunda, Pumpkin Ash [T] {t}
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata, Blue Ash {t}

    ORDER URTICALES

    Family Moraceae (mulberry family):
  • Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange {s/t}
  • Morus alba, White Mulberry [I] {s/t}
  • Morus rubra, Red Mulberry [T] {t}

    Family Ulmaceae (elm family):
  • Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry {s/t}
  • Ulmus americana, American Elm {t}
  • Ulmus pumila, Siberian Elm [I] {s/t}
  • Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm {t}

    Family Hippocastanaceae (horse-chestnut family):
  • Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye {t}
  • Aesculus hippocastatum, Horse Chestnut [I] {t}

    Family Rutaceae (rue family):
  • Ptelea trifoliata, Common Hoptree {s/t}
  • Xanthoxylum americanum, Common Pricklyash {s/t}

    Family Simaroubaceae (quassia family):
  • Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven [I] {t}

    Family Staphyleaceae (bladdernut family):
  • Staphylea trifolia, American Bladdernut {s/t}
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