Monday, September 20, 2010

Shrubs of Berrien County, Michigan

Shrubs constitute a particular growth form (or habit) of vascular plants. Plants USDA defines a shrub as follows:
Perennial, multi-stemmed woody plant that is usually less than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height. Shrubs typically have several stems arising from or near the ground, but may be taller than 5 meters or single-stemmed under certain environmental conditions.
The shrubs of Berrien County constitute a subset of the conifers, monocots, and dicots known from the county. The stems and roots of shrubs are typically woody in texture rather than herbaceous.

Of the 129 species listed below, 36 are known only as shrubs; 69 can also be trees under certain conditions; 14 can be subshrubs; 5 can be forbs/herbs or subshrubs; 3 can be a subshrubs or vines; 2 can be forbs/herbs, subshrubs, or vines, depending on conditions; and 1 can be a graminoid or subshrub. These 130 species represent 62 genera, 24 orders, 32 families, and 3 classes.

Scientific and common names follow the online USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

Species that have been determined to be of Special Concern in Michigan are denoted as [SC].

Growth habits are denoted as follows: {f/b} = forb/herb, {g} = graminoid, {ss} = subshrub [=dwarf shrub], {s} = shrub, {t} = tree, {v} = vine (woody plus herbaceous).

CLASS PINOPSIDA (conifers)
ORDER PINALES

Family Cupressaceae
(cypresses):
  • Juniperus communis, Common Juniper {s/t}

    ORDER TAXALES

    Family Taxaceae (yews)
  • Taxus canadensis, Canada Yew {s}
  • CLASS LILIOPSIDA (monocots)
    ORDER AGAVALES

    Family Agavaceae (century-plants):
  • Yucca filamentosa, Adam’s Needle (f/h/ss/s}

    ORDER CYPERALES

    Family Poaceae (grasses):
  • Phragmites australis, Common Reed (g/ss/s}

    ORDER LILIALES

    Family Smilaceae (catbriers):
  • Smilax rotundifolia, Roundleaf Greenbrier (s/v}
  • Smilax tamnoides, Bristly Greenbrier (s/v}
  • CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicots)
    ORDER CARYOPHYLLALES

    Family Cactaceae (cactus family):
  • Opuntia humifusa, Devil’s-tongue {s}

    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Aquifoliaceae (holly family):
  • Ilex (=Nemopanthus) mucronata (=mucronatus), Catberry {s/t}
  • Ilex verticillata, Common Winterberry {s/t}

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Euonymus alatus (=alata), Burningbush [I] {s}
  • Euonymus europaeus (=europaea), European Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus hamiltonianus (=hamiltoniana), Hamilton’s Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus obovatus (=obovata), Running Strawberry Bush {ss/s/v}

    ORDER CORNALES

    Family Cornaceae [including Nyssaceae] (dogwood family):
  • Cornus alternifolia, Alternateleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood {s}
  • Cornus canadensis, Bunchberry Dogwood {f/h/ss/s}
  • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus rugosa, Roundleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus sericea (=stolonifera), Redosier Dogwood {s/t}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Diervilla lonicera, Northern Bush Honeysuckle {s}
  • Lonicera canadensis, American Fly Honeysuckle {s}
  • Lonicera maackii, Amur Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera morrowii, Morrow’s Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera tatarica, Tatarian Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera xylosteum, Dwarf Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Sambucus nigra (=canadensis), Black Elderberry [I?] {s/t}
  • Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry {s/t}
  • Symphoricarpos albus, Common Snowberry {ss/s}
  • Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Coralberry {s}
  • Viburnum acerifolium, Mapleleaf Viburnum {ss/s}
  • Viburnum dentatum, Southern Arrow-wood {s/t}
  • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum nudum (=cassinoides), Withe-rod {s/t}
  • Viburnum opulus, American Cranberrybush {s/t}
  • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw [SC] {s/t}
  • Viburnum rafinesqueanum (=rafinesquianum), Downy Arrow-wood {s}

    ORDER ERICALES

    Family Ericaceae (heath family):
  • Andromeda polifolia (=glaucophylla), Bog Rosemary {ss/s}
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Kinnickinnick {ss/s}
  • Chamaedaphne calyculata, Leatherleaf {s}
  • Epigaea repens, Trailing Arbutus {ss/s}
  • Gaultheria procumbens, Eastern Teaberry {ss/s}
  • Gaylussacia baccata, Black Huckleberry {s}
  • Vaccinium angustifolium, Lowbush Blueberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Cranberry {s}
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium oxycoccos, Small Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium pallidum, Blue Ridge Blueberry {ss/s}

    ORDER FABALES

    Family Fabaceae [=Leguminoceae] (pea family):
  • Amorpha canescens, Leadplant^ [SC] {ss/s}
  • Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud {s/t}
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, Honeylocust {s/t}
  • Robinia hispida, Bristly Locust {s/t}
  • Robinia viscosa, Clammy Locust {s/t}

    Family Betulaceae (birch family):
  • Alnus incana, Gray Alder {s/t}
  • Betula pumila, Bog Birch {s}
  • Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam {s/t}
  • Corylus americana, American Hazelnut {s}
  • Ostrya virginiana, Hophornbeam {s/t}

    Family Fagaceae (beech family):
  • Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak {s/t}

    ORDER HAMAMELIDALES

    Family Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family):
  • Hamamelis virginiana, American Witchhazel {s/t}

    ORDER LAURALES

    Family Lauraceae (laurel family):
  • Lindera benzoin, Northern Spicebush {s/t}
  • Sassafras albidum, Sassafras {s/t}

    ORDER MAGNOLIALES

    Family Ammonaceae (custard-apple family):
  • Asimina triloba, Pawpaw {s/t}

    ORDER MYRICALES

    Family Myricaceae (bayberry family):
  • Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern {ss/s}

    ORDER MYRTALES

    Family Lythraceae (loosestrife family):
  • Decodon verticillatus, Swamp Loosestrife {ss/s}

    Family Thymelaeaceae (mezereum family):
  • Dirca palustris, Eastern Leatherwood {s}

    ORDER RANUNCULALES

    Family Berberidaceae (barberry family):
  • Berberis thunbergii, Japanese Barberry [I] {s}
  • Berberis vulgaris, Common Barberry [I] {s}

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family):
  • Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive [I] {s}
  • Shepherdia canadensis, Russet Buffaloberry {s}

    Family Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family):
  • Ceanothus americanus, New Jersey Tea {ss/s}
  • Frangula (=Rhamnus) alnus (=frangula), Glossy Buckthorn [I] {s/t}
  • Rhamnus alnifolia, Alderleaf Buckthorn {s}
  • Rhamnus cathartica, Common Buckthorn [I] {s/t}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Grossulariaceae (currant family):
  • Ribes americanum, American Black Currant {s}
  • Ribes aureum (=odoratum), Golden Currant {s}
  • Ribes cynosbati, Eastern Prickly Gooseberry {s}
  • Ribes hirtellum, Hairystem Gooseberry {s}

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Amelanchier arborea, Common Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier interior, Pacific Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier laevis, Allegheny Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier sanguinea, Roundleaf Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Crataegus calpodendron, Pear Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus crus-galli, Cockspur Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus dodgei, Dodge’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus holmesiana, Holmes’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus margarettiae, Margarett’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pedicellata, Scarlet Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pringlei, Pringle’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus punctata, Dotted Hawtorhn {s/t}
  • Malus coronaria, Sweet Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus ioensis, Prairie Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Photonia (=Aronia) floribunda (=prunifolia), Purple Chokeberry {s}
  • Physocarpus opulifolius, Common Ninebark {s}
  • Prunus americana, American Plum {s/t}
  • Prunus mahaleb, Mahaleb Cherry [I] {s/t}
  • Prunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus pumila, Sandcherry {s}
  • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus virginiana, Chokecherry {s/t}

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush {s/t}

    ORDER SALICALES

    Family Salicaceae (willow family):
  • Salix amygdaloides, Peachleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix bebbiana, Bebb Willow {s/t}
  • Salix candida, Sageleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix cordata, Heartleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix discolor, Pussy Willow {s/t}
  • Salix eriocephala, Missouri River Willow {s/t}
  • Salix exigua, Narrowleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix humilis, Prairie Willow {s}
  • Salix lucida, Shining Willow {s/t}
  • Salix myricoides, Bayberry Willow {s/t}
  • Salix petiolaris, Meadow Willow {s/t}
  • Salix purpurea, Purpleosier Willow [I] {s/t}
  • Salix sericea, Silky Willow {s/t}
  • Salix serissima, Autumn Willow {s/t}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Rhus copallinum (=copallina), Winged Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac {s/t}
  • Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy {f/h/ss/s/v}
  • Toxicodendron vernix, Poison Sumac {s/t}

    Family Rutaceae (rue family):
  • Ptelea trifoliata, Common Hoptree {s/t}
  • Xanthoxylum americanum, Common Pricklyash {s/t}

    Family Staphyleaceae (bladdernut family):
  • Staphylea trifolia, American Bladdernut {s/t}

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Oleaceae (olive family):
  • Ligustrum obtusifolium, Border Privet [I] {s}
  • Ligustrum vulgare, European Privet [I] {s}
  • Syringa vulgaris, Common Lilac [I] {s}

    ORDER SOLANALES

    Family Polemoniaceae (phlox family):
  • Phlox divaricata, Wild Blue Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox nivalis, Trailing Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox pilosa, Downy Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox subulata, Moss Phlox {f/h/ss/s}


  • Last Revised: 9/21/2010.

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