Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Monocots of Berrien County, Michigan

The monocots, short for monocotyledons (Class Liliopsida), are one of two classes of flowering plants, or angiosperms, within the Kingdom Plantae, the other being the dicots, or dicotyledons (Class Magnoliopsida). The major distinguishing features between monocots and dicots are discussed here.

Approximately 27,000 species of monocots are recognized worldwide, of which about 4,500 species occur in North America north of Mexico. According to the Online Atlas of Michigan Plants, 437 (64 percent) of the 678 species of monocots known from Michigan have been found in Berrien County; these 437 species represent 13 orders, 25 families, and 134 genera.

While the showy lilies generally draw the public’s attention, it is the grasses and sedges that dominate the local flora, accounting for 45 percent and 35 percent, respectively, of the monocots of Berrien County.

In the following list, scientific and common names follow the USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?]. The status of species determined to be Special Plants in Michigan are denoted as follows: [T] – Threatened, [SC] – Special Concern, [X] - possibly Extirpated.
ORDER AGAVALES

Family Agavaceae (century-plants):
  • Yucca filamentosa, Adam’s Needle

    ORDER ALISMATALES

    Family Alismataceae (water-plantains):
  • Alisma triviale, Northern Water Plantain
  • Sagittaria cristata, Crested Arrowhead
  • Sagittaria cuneata, Arumleaf Arrowhead
  • Sagittaria latifolia, Broadleaf Arrowhead
  • Sagittaria rigida, Sessilefruit Arrowhead

    ORDER ARALES

    Family Acoraceae (calamus):
  • Acorus americanus, Sweetflag

    Family Araceae (arums):
  • Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon
  • Arisaema triphyllum, Jack in the Pulpit
  • Calla palustris, Water Arum
  • Peltandra virginica, Green Arrow Arum
  • Symplocarpus foetidus, Skunk Cabbage

    Family Lemnaceae (duckweeds):
  • Lemna minor, Common Duckweed
  • Lemna trisulca, Star Duckweed
  • Wolffia brasiliensis, Brazilian Watermeal

    ORDER COMMELINALES

    Family Commelinaceae (spiderworts):
  • Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower [I]
  • Commelina erecta, Whitemouth Dayflower [X]
  • Tradescantia ohiensis, Bluejacket

    Family Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grasses):
  • Xyris difformis, Bog Yelloweyed Grass
  • Xyris torta, Slender Yelloweyed Grass

    ORDER CYPERALES

    Family Cyperaceae (sedges):
  • Bulbostylis capillarias, Densetuft Hairsedge
  • Carex alata, Broadwing Sedge
  • Carex albicans, Whitetinge Sedge
  • Carex albolutescens, Greenwhite Sedge [T]
  • Carex albursina, White Bear Sedge
  • Carex alopecoidea, Foxtail Sedge
  • Carex arctata, Drooping Woodland Sedge
  • Carex argyrantha, Hay Sedge
  • Carex atlantica, Prickly Bog Sedge
  • Carex aurea, Golden Sedge
  • Carex bebbii, Bebb’s Sedge
  • Carex bicknellii, Bicknell’s Sedge
  • Carex blanda, Eastern Woodland Sedge
  • Carex brevior, Whortbeak Sedge
  • Carex bromoides, Brome-like Sedge
  • Carex buxbaumii, Buxbaum’s Sedge
  • Carex canescens, Silvery Sedge
  • Carex careyana, Carey’s Sedge
  • Carex cephaloidea, Thinleaf Sedge
  • Carex communis, Bibrousroot Sedge
  • Carex comosa, Longhair Sedge
  • Carex crinita, Fringed Sedge
  • Carex cristatella, Crested Sedge
  • Carex crus-corvi, Ravenfoot Sedge [T]
  • Carex cryptolepis, Northeastern Sedge
  • Carex davisii, Davis’s Sedge [SC]
  • Carex debilis, White Edge Sedge
  • Carex deweyana, Dewey Sedge
  • Carex digitalis, Slender Woodland Sedge
  • Carex duriuscula, Needleleaf Sedge
  • Carex eburnean, Bristleleaf Sedge
  • Carex emoryi, Emory’s Sedge
  • Carex flava, Yellow Sedge
  • Carex folliculata, Northern Long Sedge
  • Carex garberi, Elk Sedge
  • Carex gracilescens, Slender Looseflower Sedge
  • Carex gracillima, Graceful Sedge
  • Carex granularis, Limestone Meadow Sedge
  • Carex gravida, Heavy Sedge [X]
  • Carex grayi, Gray’s Sedge
  • Carex grisea, Inflated Narrow-leaf Sedge
  • Carex hirtifolia, Pubescent Sedge
  • Carex hitchcockiana, Hitchcock’s Sedge
  • Carex hystericina, Bottlebrush Sedge
  • Carex interior, Inland Sedge
  • Carex intumescens, Greater Bladder Sedge
  • Carex jamesii, James’s Sedge
  • Carex lacustris, Hairy Sedge
  • Carex laevivaginata, Smoothsheath Sedge
  • Carex lasiocarpa, Woollyfruit Sedge
  • Carex laxiculmis, Spreading Sedge
  • Carex laxiflora, Broad Looseflower Sedge
  • Cares leptalea, Bristlystalked Sedge
  • Carex leptonervia, Nerveless Woodland Sedge
  • Carex limosa, Mud Sedge
  • Carex longii, Long’s Sedge
  • Carex lupulina, Hop Sedge
  • Carex lurida, Shallow Sedge
  • Carex meadii, Mead’s Sedge
  • Carex molesta, Troublesome Sedge
  • Carex muehlenbergii, Muhlenberg’s Sedge
  • Carex normalis, Greater Straw Sedge
  • Carex oligocarpa, Richwoods Sedge [T]
  • Carex pedunculata, Longstalk Sedge
  • Carex pellita, Woolly Sedge
  • Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge
  • Carex plantaginea, Plantainleaf Sedge
  • Carex prairea, Prairie Sedge
  • Carex prasina, Drooping Sedge
  • Carex radiata, Eastern Star Sedge
  • Carex rosea, Rosy Sedge
  • Carex sartwellii, Sartwell’s Sedge
  • Carex scabrata, Estern Rough Sedge
  • Carex scoparia, Broom Sedge
  • Carex seorsa, Weak Stellate Sedge
  • Carex siccata, Dryspike Sedge
  • Carex sparganioides, Bur-reed Sedge
  • Carex sprengelii, Sprengell’s Sedge
  • Carex sterilis, Dioecious Sedge
  • Carex stipata, Awlfruit Sedge
  • Carex stricta, Upright Sedge
  • Carex suberecta, Prairie Straw Sedge
  • Carex swanii, Swan’s Sedge
  • Carex tonsa, Shaved Sedge
  • Carex tribuloides, Blunt Broom Sedge
  • Carex trisperma, Threeseeded Sedge
  • Carex tuckermanii, Tuckerman’s Sedge
  • Carex utriculata, Northwest Territory Sedge
  • Carex virescens, Ribbed Sedge
  • Carex viridula, Little Green Sedge
  • Carex vulpinoidea, Fox Sedge
  • Carex woodii, Pretty Sedge
  • Cladium mariscoides, Smooth Sawgrass
  • Cyperus bipartitus, Slender Flatsedge
  • Cyperus diandrus, Umbrella Flatsedge
  • Cyperus odoratus (=engelmannii), Fragrant Flatsedge
  • Cyperus esculentus, Yellow Nutsedge [I?]
  • Cyperus flavescens, Yellow Flatsedge [SC]
  • Cyperus houghtonii, Houghton’s Flatsedge
  • Cyperus lupulinus, Great Plains Flatsedge
  • Cyperus odoratus, Fragrant Flatsedge
  • Cyperus schweinitzii, Schweinitz’s Flatsedge
  • Cyperus squarrosus, Bearded Flatsedge
  • Cyperus strigosus, Strawcolored Flatsedge
  • Dulichium arundinaceum, Threeway Sedge
  • Eleocharis acicularis, Needle Spikerush
  • Eleocharis elliptica, Elliptic Spikerush
  • Eleocharis engelmannii, Engelmann’s Spikerush [SC]
  • Eleocharis erythropoda, Bald Spikerush
  • Eleocharis flavescens, Yellow Spikerush
  • Eleocharis intermedia, Matted Spikerush
  • Eleocharis melanocarpa, Blackfruit Spikerush [SC]
  • Eleocharis obtusa, Blunt Spikerush
  • Eleocharis palustris, Common Spikerush
  • Eleocharis robbinsii, Robbin’s Spikerush
  • Eriophorum angustifolium, Tall Cottongrass
  • Eriophorum gracile, Slender Cottongrass
  • Eriophorum virginicum, Tawny Cottongrass
  • Eriophorum viridicarinatum, Thinleaf Cottongrass
  • Lipocarpha micrantha, Smallflower Halfchaff Sedge
  • Rhynchospora alba, White Beaksedge
  • Rhynchospora capillacea, Needle Beaksedge
  • Rhynchospora capitellata, Brownish Beaksedge
  • Rhynchospora fusca, Brown Beaksedge
  • Rhynchospora macrostachya, Tall Horned Beaksedge [SC]
  • Rhynchospora scirpoides, Longbeak Beaksedge
  • Schoenoplectus acutus, Hardstem Bulrush
  • Schoenoplectus pungens, Common Threesquare
  • Schoenoplectus purshianus, Weakstalk Bulrush
  • Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Softstem Bulrush
  • Scirpus atrovirens, Green Bulrush
  • Scirpus cyperinus, Woolgrass
  • Scirpus expansus, Woodland Bulrush
  • Scirpus hattorianus, Mosquito Bulrush
  • Scirpus pendulus, Rufous Bulrush
  • Scleria reticularis, Netted Nutrush [T]

    Family Poaceae (grasses):
  • Agropyron repens, Quackgrass [I]
  • Agrostis gigantea, Redtop [I]
  • Agrostis hyemalis, Winter Bentgrass
  • Agrostis perennans, Upland Bentgrass
  • Alopecurus aequalis, Shortawn Foxtail
  • Alopecurus carolinianus, Carolina Foxtail
  • Ammophila breviligulata, American Beachgrass
  • Andropogon gerardii, Big Bluestem
  • Andropogon virginicus, Broomsedge Bluestem
  • Aristida longispica, Slimspike Threeawn [T]
  • Aristida oligantha, Prairie Threeawn
  • Aristida purpurascens, Arrowfeather Threeawn
  • Aristida tuberculosa, Seaside Threeawn [T]
  • Arrhenatherum elatius, Tall Oatgrass
  • Avena sativa, Common Oat [I]
  • Brachyelytrum erectum, Bearded Shorthusk
  • Bromus briziformis, Rattlesnake Brome [I]
  • Bromus ciliatus, Fringed Brome
  • Bromus inermis, Smooth Brome [I?]
  • Bromus japonicus, Field Brome [I]
  • Bromus latiglumis, Earlyleaf Brome
  • Bromus pubescens, Hairy Woodland Brome
  • Bromus secalinus, Rye Brome [I]
  • Bromus squarrosus, Corn Brome [I]
  • Bromus sterilis, Poverty Brome [I]
  • Bromus tectorum, Cheatgrass [I]
  • Calamagrostis canadensis, Bluejoint
  • Calamagrostis stricta (=inexpansa), Northern Reedgrass [T]
  • Cenchrus longispinus, Mat Sandbur
  • Chasmanthium latifolium, Indian Woodoats [T]
  • Chloris verticillata, Tumble Windmill Grass
  • Cinna arundinacea, Sweet Woodreed
  • Corynephorus canescens, Gray Clubawn Grass
  • Cynodon dactylon, Bermudagrass
  • Dactylis glomerata, Orchardgrass
  • Danthonia spicata, Poverty Grass
  • Diarrhena obovata, Obovate Beakgrain
  • Dichanthelium acuminatum [includes D. implicatum and D. lindheimeri], Tapered Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deertongue
  • Dichanthelium commutatum, Variable Panicgrass
  • Dichanthelium depauperatum, Starved Panicgrass
  • Dichanthelium dichotomum [includes D. microcarpon], Cypress Panicgrass
  • Dichanthelium latifolium, Broadleaf Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium linearifolium (=perlongum), Slimleaf Panicgrass
  • Dichanthelium meridionale, Matting Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium oligosanthes, Heller’s Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium ovale (=commonsianum), Addison’s Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon [includes D. polyanthes], Roundseed Panicgrass
  • Dichanthelium spretum, Eaton’s Rosette Grass
  • Dichanthelium villosissimum (=praecocius), Whitehair Rosette Grass
  • Digitaria cognata, Fall Witchgrass
  • Digitaria ischaemum, Smooth Crabgrass [I]
  • Digitaria sanguinalis, Hairy Crabgrass
  • Echinochloa crus-galli, Barnyardgrass [I]
  • Echinochloa muricata, Rough Barnyardgrass
  • Echinochloa walteri, Coast Cockspur Grass
  • Eleusine indica, Indian Goosegrass [I]
  • Elymus canadensis, Canada Wildrye
  • Elymus hystrix (=Hystrix patula), Eastern Bottlebrush Grass
  • Elymus riparius, Riverbank Wildrye
  • Elymus trachycaulus, Slender Wheatgrass
  • Elymus villosus, Hairy Wildrye
  • Elymus virginicus, Virginia Wildrye
  • Eragrostis cilianensis, Stinkgrass [I]
  • Eragrostis curvula, Wheeping Lovegrass [I]
  • Eragrostis hypnoides, Teal Lovegrass
  • Eragrostis minor, Little Lovegrass [I]
  • Eragrostis pectinacea, Tufted Lovegrass
  • Eragrostis spectabilis, Purple Lovegrass
  • Festuca myuros, Rat-tail Fescue [I]
  • Festuca ovina, Sheep Fescue [I]
  • Festuca pratensis, Meadow Fescue [I]
  • Festuca rubra, Red Fescue [I?]
  • Festuca saximontana, Rocky Mountain Fescue
  • Festuca subverticillata, Nodding Fescue
  • Glyceria canadensis, Rattlesnake Mannagrass
  • Glyceria septentrionalis, floating Mannagrass
  • Glyceria striata, Fowl Mannagrass
  • Hierochloe odorata, Sweetgrass
  • Holcus lanatus, Common Velvetgrass [I]
  • Hordeum jubatum, Foxtail Barley
  • Koeleria macrantha, Prairie Junegrass
  • Leersia oryzoides, Rice Cutgrass
  • Leersia virginica, Whitegrass
  • Leymus [=Elymus] arenarius, Sand Ryegrass [I]
  • Lolium perenne, Perennial Ryegrass [I]
  • Lolium temulentum, Darnel Ryegrass [I]
  • Milium effusum, American Milletgrass
  • Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Amur Silvergrass [I]
  • Miscanthus sinensis, Chinese Silvergrass [I]
  • Muhlenbergia frondosa, Wirestem Muhli
  • Muhlenbergia glomerata, Spiked Muhli
  • Muhlenbergia mexicana, Mexican Muhli
  • Muhlenbergia schreberi, Nimblewill
  • Muhlenbergia tenuiflora, Slimflower Muhly
  • Oryzopsis asperifolia, Roughleaf Ricegrass
  • Oryzopsis racemosa, Blackseed Ricegrass
  • Panicum capillare, Witchgrass
  • Panicum rigidulum, Redtop Panicgrass
  • Panicum philadelphicum (=tuckermanii), Philadelphia Panicgrass
  • Panicum virgatum, Witchgrass
  • Paspalum laeve, Field Paspalum
  • Paspalum setaceum, Twin Paspalum
  • Phleum pratense, Timothy [I]
  • Phragmites australis, Common Reed
  • Poa alsodes, Grove Bluegrass
  • Poa annua, Annual Bluegrass [I]
  • Poa bulbosa, Bulbous Bluegrass [I]
  • Poa compressa, Canada Bluegrass [I]
  • Poa nemoralis, Wood Bluegrass [I?]
  • Poa palustris, Fowl Bluegrass
  • Poa pratensis, Kentucky Bluegrass [I?]
  • Poa sylvestris, Woodland Bluegrass
  • Schizachne purpurascens, False Melic
  • Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem
  • Secale cereale, Cereal Rye [I]
  • Setaria faberi, Japanese Bristlegrass [I]
  • Setaria pumila, Yellow Foxtail [I]
  • Setaria verticillata, Hooked Bristlebrush [I]
  • Setaria viridis, Green Bristlegrass [I]
  • Sorghastrum nutans, Indiangrass
  • Sorghum halepense, Johnsongrass [I]
  • Spartina pectinatta, Prairie Cordgrass
  • Sphenopholis intermedia, Slender Wedgescale
  • Sphenopholis nitida, Shiny Wedgescale
  • Sphenopholis obtusata, Prairie Wedgescale
  • Sporobolus compositus, Composite Dropseed
  • Sporobolus cryptandrus, Sand Dropseed
  • Stipa avenacea, Blackseed Speargrass
  • Tridens flavus, Purpletop Tridens
  • Triplasis purpurea, Purple Sandgrass [SC]
  • Triticum aestivum, Common Wheat [I]
  • Zizania aquatica, Annual Wildrice [T]
  • Vulpia [=Festuca] octoflora, Sixweeks Fescue

    ORDER ERIOCAULALES

    Family Eriocaulaceae (pipeworts):
  • Eriocaulon aquaticum, Sevenangle Pipewort

    ORDER HYDROCHARITALES

    Family Hydrocharitaceae (tape-grasses):
  • Elodea canadensis, Canadian Waterweed
  • Vallisneria americana, American Eelgrass

    ORDER JUNCALES

    Family Juncaceae (rushes):
  • Juncus alpinoarticularis (=alpine), Northern Green Rush
  • Juncus anthelatus, Greater Poverty Rush
  • Juncus arcticus (=balticus), Mountain Rush
  • Juncus biflorus, Bog Rush
  • Juncus brachycephalus, Smallhead Rush
  • Juncus canadensis, Canadian Rush
  • Juncus dudleyi, Dudley’s Rush
  • Juncus effusus, Common Rush
  • Juncus greenei, Greene’s Rush
  • Juncus nodosus, Knotted Rush
  • Juncus scirpoides, Needlepod Rush [ST]
  • Juncus tenuis, Poverty Rush
  • Juncus torreyi, Torrey’s Rush
  • Luzula acuminata, Hairy Woodrush
  • Luzula multiflora, Common Woodrush

    ORDER LILIALES

    Family Dioscoreaceae (yams):
  • Dioscorea vollosa, Wild Yam

    Family Iridaceae (irises):
  • Iris virginica, Virginia Iris
  • Sisyrinchium albidum, White Blue-eyed Grass
  • Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass

    Family Liliaceae (lilies):
  • Aletris farinosa, White Colicroot
  • Allium canadense, Meadow Garlic
  • Allium cernuum, Nodding Onion
  • Allium tricoccum, Ramp
  • Allium vineale, Wild Garlic [I]
  • Asparagus officinalis, Garden Asparagus [I]
  • Clintonia borealis, Bluebeard
  • Erythronium americanum, Dogtooth Violet [=Trout Lily]
  • Hemerocallis fulva, Orange Daylily (I)
  • Hypoxis hirsuta, Common Goldstar
  • Lilium michiganense, Michigan Lily
  • Lilium philadelphicum, Wood Lily
  • Maianthemum canadense, Canada Mayflower
  • Maianthemum racemosum, Feathery False Lily of the Valley
  • Mainthemum stellatum, Starry False Lily of the Valley
  • Medeola virginia, Indian Cucumber
  • Muscari botryoides, Common Grape Hyacinth [I]
  • Muscari neglectum, Starch Grape Hyacinth [I]
  • Ornithogalum umbellatum, Sleepydick [I]
  • Polygonatum biflorum, Smooth Solomon’s Seal
  • Polygonatum pubescens, Hairy Solomon’s Seal
  • Tofieldia glutinosa, Sticky Tofieldia
  • Trillium flexipes, Nodding Wakerobin
  • Trillium grandiflorum, White Trillium
  • Trillium recurvatum, Bloody Butcher [T]
  • Trillium sessile, Toadshade [T]
  • Trillium undulatum, Painted Trillium [E]
  • Uvularia grandiflora, Largeflower Bellwort
  • Zigadenus elegans, Mountain Ceathcamas

    Family Pontederiaceae (water-hyacinths):
  • Heteranthera dubia, Grassleaf Mudplantain
  • Pontederia cordata, Pickerelweed

    Family Smilacaceae (catbriers):
  • Smilax ecirrhata, Upright Carrionflower
  • Smilax illinoensis, Illinois Greenbrier
  • Smilax lasioneura, Blue Ridge Carrionflower
  • Smilax rotundifolia, Roundleaf Greenbrier
  • Smilax tamnoides, Bristly Greenbrier

    ORDER NAJADALES

    Family Juncaginaceae (arrow-grasses):
  • Triglochin maritima, Seaside Arrowgrass
  • Triglochin palustris, Marsh Arrowgrass

    Family Scheuchzeriaceae (rannoch-rush):
  • Scheuchzeria palustris, Rannoch-Rush

    Family Najadaceae (waternymphs):
  • Najas flexilis, Nodding Waternymph

    Family Potamogetonaceae (pondweeds):
  • Potamogeton amplifolius, Largeleaf Pondweed
  • Potamogeton bicupulatus, Snailseed Pondweed
  • Potamogeton illinoensis, Illinois Pondweed
  • Potamogeton nodosus, Longleaf Pondweed
  • Potamogeton richardsonii, Richardson’s Pondweed
  • Potamogeton zosteriformis, Flatstem Pondweed
  • Stuckenia pectinata, Sago Pondweed

    ORDER ORCHIDALES

    Family Orchidaceae (orchids):
  • Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve
  • Calopogon tuberosus, Tuberous Grasspink
  • Corallorhiza maculata, Summer Coralroot
  • Corallorhiza odontorhiza, Autumn Coralroot
  • Cypripedium acaule, Moccasin Flower
  • Cypripedium candidum, White Lady’s Slipper [T]
  • Cypripedium parviflorum, Lesser Yellow Lady’s Slipper
  • Cypripedium reginae, Showy Lady’s Slipper
  • Dactylorhiza viridis (=Coeloglossum viride), Longbract Frog Orchid
  • Epipactis helleborine, Broadleaf Helleborine
  • Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid [T]
  • Goodyera pubescens, Downy Rattlesnake Plantain
  • Isotria medeoloides, Small Whorled Pogonia [E]
  • Isotria verticillata, Large Whorled Pogonia [T]
  • Liparis liliifolia, Brown Widelip Orchid [SC]
  • Liparis loeselii, Yellow Widelip Orchid
  • Malaxis unifolia, Green Adder’s-mouth Orchid
  • Platanthera ciliaris, Yellow Fringed Orchid [T]
  • Platanthera clavellata, Small Green Wood Orchid
  • Platanthera flava, Palegreen Orchid
  • Platanthera hookeri, Hooker’s Orchid
  • Platanthera lacera, Green Fringed Orchid
  • Platanthera leucophaea, Prairie White Fringed Orchid [E]
  • Platanthera orbiculata, Lesser Roundleaved Orchid
  • Platanthera psycodes, Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid
  • Pogonia ophioglossoides, Snakemouth Orchid
  • Spiranthes cernua, Nodding Lady’s Tresses
  • Spiranthes magnicamporum, Great Plains Lady’s Tresses
  • Spiranthes ochroleuca, Yellow Nodding Lady’s Tresses [SC]
  • Spiranthes tuberosa, Little Lady’s Tresses
  • Tipularia discolor, Crippled Cranefly [T]
  • Triphora trianthophora, Threebirds [T]

    ORDER TYPHALES

    Family Sparganiaceae (bur-reeds):
  • Sparganium americanum, American Bur-reed
  • Sparganium eurycarpium, Broadfruit Bur-reed

    Family Typhaceae (cattails):
  • Typha angustifolia, Narrowleaf Cattail
  • Typha latifolia, Broadleaf Cattail
  • Last revised: 4/14/09.

    0 Comments:

    Post a Comment

    Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]

    Links to this post:

    Create a Link

    << Home

     

    The FatBirder's Nest
    FatBirder Web Ring